ABOUT INTERNATIONAL ICE PATROL (IIP)
The mission of the International Ice Patrol is to monitor the iceberg danger near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and provide the iceberg limit to the maritime community. The tragic sinking of the luxury passenger liner RMS TITANIC in 1912 prompted the maritime nations with ships transiting the North Atlantic to establish an iceberg patrol in the area. Since 1913, the United States Coast Guard has been tasked with the management and operation of the patrol, known as the International Ice Patrol (IIP).
Except for the years of the two World Wars, The Ice Patrol has been active each ice season since 1913. During this period, the Ice Patrol has amassed an enviable safety record. No vessel that has heeded the Ice Patrol's published iceberg limit has collided with an iceberg.
Ice Patrol and the Canadian Ice Service (CIS) issue one daily iceberg analysis under the North American Ice Service (NAIS), a collaborative agreement to unify North American ice information and improve service to mariners. The iceberg analysis is published in text bulletins and a graphical chart by 0000Z and when changing conditions require a revision.
MISSION: Monitor the iceberg danger near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and provide the iceberg limit to the maritime community.
VISION: Eliminate the risk of iceberg collision.
The IIP produces and releases iceberg information products from February 1st through August 31, during which the U.S. Coast Guard International Ice Patrol actively patrols the area of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland for the extent of iceberg danger as required. The remainder of the year the responsibility of product distribution is transferred to the Canadian Ice Service, who works closely with the International Ice Patrol under the North American Ice Service (NAIS). This partnership ensures accurate products are delivered to mariners year-round. The 1992 season, the longest on record, ran from March 7th through September 26th, 203 days. Except during unusually heavy ice years, the Grand Banks are normally free of ice from August through January.
The activities of the International Ice Patrol are delineated by treaty and U.S. law to encompass only those ice regions of the North Atlantic Ocean through which the major trans-Atlantic tracks pass. There remain other areas of ice danger where shipping must exercise extreme caution. A tragic example of this occurred on January 30, 1959 when S.S. HANSHEDTOFT struck an iceberg about 40 miles south of Cape Farewell, Greenland. On her maiden voyage, this ship, equipped with the latest electronic aids, sank without a trace, taking with it the 95 passengers and crew on board.
Fixed wing Coast Guard aircraft conduct the primary reconnaissance work for the Ice Patrol. Ice reconnaissance flights are made on the average of five days every other week during the ice season. The mainstay of the Ice Patrol flights since 1962 has been the C-130 long range surveillance aircraft. IIP is currently using the HC-130J model operated out of Elizabeth City, NC. The usual patrol time for these long range multi-engine planes is between 5 to 7 hours, with each flight covering an expanse of water of 30,000 square miles or more. Information concerning ice conditions is collected primarily from air surveillance flights and ships operating in or passing through the ice area.
All the iceberg data is fed into a computer model at the IIP Operations Center along with ocean current and wind data. Using this information, the model predicts the drift of the icebergs. Each day, the predicted iceberg locations are used to estimate the iceberg limit. This limit is incorporated into our daily products, the NAIS Iceberg Bulletin and NAIS Iceberg Chart, which are sent to mariners via SafetyNET, NAVTEX, SITOR, email, and the world-wide web.
Except for the years of the two World Wars, the International Ice Patrol has conducted each season since 1913. During the period the Ice Patrol has amassed an enviable safety record with not a single reported loss of life or property due to collision with an iceberg outside the advertised limit in the vicinity of the Grand Banks. However, the potential for a catastrophe still exists, as evidenced by numerous collisions with icebergs by ships transiting through the Ice Patrol iceberg limit through the years. You may view the history of the International Ice Patrol in more detail in our IIP History section.