TYPES OF AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS (PER ITU-R M.1371 AND IEC STANDARDS)
Class A (IEC 61993-2)
Shipborne mobile equipment intended to meet the performance standards and carriage requirements adopted by IMO. Class A stations report their position (message 1/2/3) autonomously every 2-10 seconds dependent on the vessel’s speed and/or course changes (every three minutes or less when at anchor or moored); and, the vessel’s static and voyage related information (message 5) every 6 minutes. Class A stations are also capable of text messaging safety related information (message 6/8) and AIS Application Specific Messages (message 6,8,25,26), such as meteorological and hydrological data, electronic Broadcast Notice to Mariners, and other marine safety information (see IMO Safety of Navigation Circular 289, GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF AIS APPLICATION-SPECIFIC MESSAGES (ASM) or the IALA Application Specific Message Collection).
Class B (IEC 62287-1 and 62287-2)
Shipborne mobile equipment which is interoperable with all other AIS stations, but, does not meet all the performance standards adopted by IMO. Similar to Class A stations, they report every three minutes or less when at anchor or moored, but, their position (message 6/8) is reported less often and at a lower power. Likewise, they report the vessel’s static data (message 18/24) every 6 minutes, but, not any voyage related information. They can receive safety related text and application specific messages, but, cannot transmit them. There are two types of Class B AIS, those using carrier sense Time-Division Multiple Access (CS-TDMA) technology and those like the Class A using Self-Organizing Time-Division Multiple Access Technology (SO-TDMA). Class B/SO is generally more capable; Class B/CS is generally less expensive. See this broader comparison of Class A and Class B AIS.
Search and Rescue Aircraft (IEC standards yet to be developed)
Aircraft mobile equipment, normally reporting every ten seconds.
AIS Aid to Navigation (ATON) (IEC 62320-2)
Shore-based or mobile station providing location and status of an aid to navigation (ATON); which may also broadcast Application Specific Messages (message 6/8). In the United States, these stations report (message 21) normally every three minutes or less and are identified by a 9936xxxxx MMSI; and, are listed in the USCG Light List. For further information on AIS ATON: see the Coast Guard Special Notice regarding their use and the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities’ publications on the subject.
Note, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) nor the National Telecommunication Information Agency (NTIA) will not grant licensing/authorization of an AIS ATON station without prior approval from the Coast Guard. For such approvals use: USCG AIS Aton Application Form.
AIS Search and Rescue Transmitter (SART) (IEC 61097-14)
Mobile equipment to assist homing to itself (i.e. life boats, life raft). An AIS SART transmits a text broadcast (message 14) of either 'SART TEST' or 'ACTIVE SART'. When active the unit also transmits a position message (message 1 with a 'Navigation Status' = 14) in a burst of 8 messages once per minute.
AIS Base Station (IEC 62320-1)
AIS SARTs are also used in maritime survivor locating devices (MSLD) or man overboard (MOB) devices, as specified in RTCM 11901.1, Standard for Maritime Survivor Locating Devices as well as for AIS locating beacons on 406 MHz EPIRBs. Standard AIS SARTs can be identified by MMSI's beginning with the numbers "970", AIS maritime survivor locating devices or MOBs with MMSIs beginning with "972", and AIS EPIRB with MMSIs beginning with "974". All categories of AIS SARTs will be displayed on IMO-mandated shipboard navigation displays.
Shore-based station providing text messages, time synchronization, meteorological or hydrological information, navigation information, and, Application Specific Messages (message 6/8). In the United States, these stations report (message 4) every ten seconds and are identified by a 0036xxxxx MMSI. Note: private sale or use of an AIS Base Station is prohibited in the United States (47 CFR 2.803, 80.371).
Use of non FCC certified radio equipment, including AIS, in the USA is prohibited (see 47 CFR § 2.803, 80.275, 80.371, 80.1101(c)12). For a listing of FCC certified AIS equipment use the FCC OET Equipment Authorization Search Form [Select: Equipment Class--AIS). U.S. AIS carriage requirements can only be met by USCG type-approved equipment; which is listed at the Coast Guard Maritime Information Exchange (CGMIX) [EQList Search, Select: Approval Series Name--Shipborne AIS). Type-approval requirements for AIS are described in the Coast Guard's Approval of Navigation Equipment Navigational and Vessel Inspection Circular (NVIC) 8-01. For further information on the process email: email@example.com.
You may also download Data Broadcasted From Each AIS Station Type.