NAVTEX in the United States
The International Maritime Organization has designated NAVTEX as the primary means for transmitting coastal urgent marine safety information to ships worldwide. In the United States, NAVTEX is broadcast from Coast Guard facilities in Cape Cod, Chesapeake VA, Savannah GA, Miami FL, New Orleans LA, San Juan PR, Cambria CA, Pt. Reyes CA, Astoria OR, Kodiak AK, Honolulu HI, and Guam. The Coast Guard began operating NAVTEX from Boston in 1983.
NAVTEX coverage is reasonably continuous in the east, west and Gulf coasts of the United States, as well the area around Kodiak Alaska, Guam and Puerto Rico. The U.S. has no coverage in the Great Lakes, though coverage of much of the Lakes is provided by the Canadian Coast Guard. Since the U.S. Coast Guard originally only installed NAVTEX at sites where Morse telegraphy transmissions were made previously, propagation analyses show some coverage gaps, particularly in the southeast United States, Alaska, and Guam. NAVTEX broadcasts from Adak were permanently terminated in December 1996 due to the closure of the Naval facility there.
NAVTEX Predicted Coverage in the U.S.
- Eastern U.S NAVTEX Coverage (less Savannah) 50kb jpg file (color)
- Western U.S. NAVTEX Coverage 60kb gif file (b/w)
- Savannah GA NAVTEX Coverage 90 kb jpg (color), (Oct 2000)
These charts will be updated as changes occur.
NAVTEX Message Selection
Every NAVTEX message is preceded by a four character header B
(1) is an alpha character identifying the station, and B
(2) is an alpha character used to identify the subject of the message. Receivers use these characters to reject messages from stations or concerning subjects of no interest to the user. B
(4) are two-digit numerics identifying individual messages, used by receivers to keep already received messages from being repeated. For example, a message preceded by the characters FE01 from a U.S. NAVTEX Station indicate that this is a weather forecast message from Boston MA.
The Transmitter Identification Character B
The transmitter identification character B
(1) is a single unique letter which is allocated to each transmitter. It is used to identify the broadcasts which are to be accepted by the receiver and those which are to be rejected. In order to avoid erroneous reception of transmissions from two stations having the same B
(1) character, it is necessary to ensure that such stations have a large geographical separation. NAVTEX transmissions have a designed range of about 400 nautical miles.
Subject indicator character B
The subject indicator character is used by the receiver to identify different classes of messages below. The indicator is also used to reject messages concerning certain optional subjects which are not required by the ship (e.g. LORAN C messages might be rejected in a ship which is not fitted with a LORAN C receiver). Receivers also use the B
(2) character to identify messages which, because of their importance, may not be rejected (designated by an asterisk).
All NAVTEX broadcasts are made on 518 kHz, using narrow-band direct printing 7-unit forward error correcting (FEC or Mode B) transmission. This type of transmission is also used by Amateur Radio service (AMTOR). Broadcasts use 100 baud FSK modulation, with a frequency shift of 170 Hz. The center frequency of the audio spectrum applied to a single sideband transmitter is 1700 Hz. The receiver 6 dB bandwidth should be between 270-340 Hz.
Each character is transmitted twice. The first transmission (DX) of a specific character is followed by the transmission of four other characters, after which the retransmission (RX) of the first character takes place, allowing for time-diversity reception of 280 ms.
For more information, see ITU Recommendations M.540-2 and M.476-5, available from the ITU Radiocommunications Sector.
- Practical Instruction for the Use of a NAVTEX Receiver (Acrobat PDF)
- Chart of NAVTEX Stations Worldwide (from GMDSS/Circ.8, courtesy IMO)
- Master Plan of Shore-based Facilities for the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS Master Plan and Broadcast Schedule) (05 Feb 2014)
- NOAA/National Weather Service NAVTEX Page
- Other Maritime Safety Broadcast Information